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SQL Training

Oracle11g Application Server
Oracle11g Database
Relational and Object Relational Database Management System
Oracle Internet Platform
System Development Life Cycle
Data Storage on Different Media
Relational Database Concept
Definition of a Relational Database
Data Models
Entity Relationship Model
Entity Relationship Modeling Conventions
Relating Multiple Tables
Relational Database Terminology
Relational Database Properties
Communicating with a RDBMS Using SQL
Relational Database Management System
SQL Statements
Tables Used in the Course

Writing Basic SQL SELECT Statements

Capabilities of SQL SELECT Statements
Basic SELECT Statement
Selecting All Columns
Selecting Specific Columns
Writing SQL Statements
Column Heading Defaults
Arithmetic Expressions
Using Arithmetic Operators
Operator Precedence
Using Parentheses
Defining a Null Value
Null Values in Arithmetic Expressions
Defining a Column Alias
Using Column Aliases
Concatenation Operator
Using the Concatenation Operator
Literal Character Strings
Using Literal Character Strings
Duplicate Rows
Eliminating Duplicate Rows
Displaying Table Structure

Restricting and Sorting Data

Limiting Rows Using a Selection
Limiting the Rows Selected
Using the WHERE Clause
Character Strings and Dates
Comparison Conditions
Using Comparison Conditions
Other Comparison Conditions
Using the BETWEEN Condition
Using the IN Condition
Using the LIKE Condition
Using the NULL Conditions
Logical Conditions
Using the AND Operator
Using the OR Operator
Using the NOT Operator
Rules of Precedence
Sorting in Descending Order
Sorting by Column Alias
Sorting by Multiple Columns

Single-Row Functions

SQL Functions
Two Types of SQL Functions
Single-Row Functions
Single-Row Functions
Character Functions
Character Functions
Case Manipulation Functions
Using Case Manipulation Functions
Character-Manipulation Functions
Using the Character-Manipulation Functions
Number Functions
Using the ROUND Function
Using the TRUNC Function
Using the MOD Function
Working with Dates
Arithmetic with Dates
Using Arithmetic Operators with Dates
Date Functions
Using Date Functions
Conversion Functions
Implicit Data Type Conversion
Explicit Data Type Conversion
Using the TO_CHAR Function with Dates
Elements of the Date Format Model
Using the TO_CHAR Function with Dates
Using the TO_CHAR Function with Numbers
Using the TO_NUMBER and TO_DATE Functions
RR Date Format
Example of RR Date Format
Nesting Functions
General Functions
NVL Function
Using the NVL Function
Using the NVL2 Function
Using the NULLIF Function
Using the COALESCE Function
Conditional Expressions
The CASE Expression
Using the CASE Expression
The DECODE Function
Using the DECODE Function

Displaying Data from Multiple Tables

Obtaining Data from Multiple Tables
Cartesian Products
Generating a Cartesian Product
Types of Joins
Joining Tables Using Oracle Syntax
What is an Equijoin?
Retrieving Records with Equijoins
Additional Search Conditions Using the AND Operator
Qualifying Ambiguous Column Names
Using Table Aliases
Joining More than Two Tables
Retrieving Records with Non-Equijoins
Outer Joins
Outer Joins Syntax
Using Outer Joins
Self Joins
Joining a Table to Itself
Joining Tables Using SQL: 1999 Syntax
Creating Cross Joins
Creating Natural Joins
Retrieving Records with Natural Joins
Creating Joins with the USING Clause
Retrieving Records with the USING Clause
Creating Joins with the ON Clause
Retrieving Records with the ON Clause
Creating Three-Way Joins with the ON Clause
INNER Versus OUTER Joins
Additional Conditions

Aggregating Data Using Group Functions

What Are Group Functions?
Types of Group Functions
Group Functions Syntax
Using the AVG and SUM Functions
Using the MIN and MAX Functions
Using the COUNT Function
Using the DISTINCT Keyword
Group Functions and Null Values
Using the NVL Function with Group Functions
Creating Groups of Data
Creating Groups of Data: The GROUP BY Clause Syntax
Using the GROUP BY Clause
Grouping by More Than One Column
Using the GROUP BY Clause on Multiple Columns
Illegal Queries Using Group Functions
Excluding Group Results
Excluding Group Results: The HAVING Clause
Using the HAVING Clause
Nesting Group Functions

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Using a Subquery to Solve a Problem
Subquery Syntax
Using a Subquery
Guidelines for Using Subqueries
Types of Subqueries
Single-Row Subqueries
Executing Single-Row Subqueries
Using Group Functions in a Subquery
The HAVING Clause with Subqueries
What is Wrong with this Statement?
Will this Statement Return Rows?
Multiple-Row Subqueries
Using the ANY Operator in Multiple-Row Subqueries
Using the ALL Operator in Multiple-Row Subqueries
Null Values in a Subquery

Manipulating Data

Data Manipulation Language
Adding a New Row to a Table
The INSERT Statement Syntax
Inserting New Rows
Inserting Rows with Null Values
Inserting Special Values
Inserting Specific Date Values
Creating a Script
Copying Rows from Another Table
Changing Data in a Table
The UPDATE Statement Syntax
Updating Rows in a Table
Updating Two Columns with a Subquery
Updating Rows Based on Another Table
Updating Rows: Integrity Constraint Error
Removing a Row from a Table
The DELETE Statement
Deleting Rows from a Table
Deleting Rows Based on Another Table
Deleting Rows: Integrity Constraint Error
Using a Subquery in an INSERT Statement
Using the WITH CHECK OPTION Keyword on DML Statements
Overview of the Explicit Default Feature
Using Explicit Default Values
The MERGE Statement
The MERGE Statement Syntax
Merging Rows
Database Transactions
Advantages of COMMIT and ROLLBACK Statements
Controlling Transactions
Rolling Back Changes to a Marker
Implicit Transaction Processing
State of the Data Before COMMIT or ROLLBACK
State of the Data after COMMIT
Committing Data
State of the Data After ROLLBACK
Statement-Level Rollback
Read Consistency
Implementation of Read Consistency
Implicit Locking

Creating and Managing Tables

Database Objects
Naming Rules
The CREATE TABLE Statement
Referencing Another User’s Tables
The DEFAULT Option
Creating Tables
Tables in the Oracle Database
Querying the Data Dictionary
Data Types
DateTime Data Types
Creating a Table by Using a Subquery Syntax
Creating a Table by Using a Subquery
The ALTER TABLE Statement
Adding a Column
Modifying a Column
Dropping a Column
Dropping a Table
Changing the Name of an Object
Truncating a Table
Adding Comments to a Table

Including Constraints

What are Constraints?
Constraint Guidelines
Defining Constraints
The NOT NULL Constraint
The UNIQUE Constraint
The PRIMARY KEY Constraint
The FOREIGN KEY Constraint
FOREIGN KEY Constraint Keywords
The CHECK Constraint
Adding a Constraint Syntax
Adding a Constraint
Dropping a Constraint
Disabling Constraints
Enabling Constraints
Cascading Constraints
Viewing Constraints
Viewing the Columns Associated with Constraints

Including Constraints

What are Constraints?
Constraint Guidelines
Defining Constraints
The NOT NULL Constraint
The UNIQUE Constraint
The PRIMARY KEY Constraint
The FOREIGN KEY Constraint
FOREIGN KEY Constraint Keywords
The CHECK Constraint
Adding a Constraint Syntax
Adding a Constraint
Dropping a Constraint
Disabling Constraints
Enabling Constraints
Cascading Constraints
Viewing Constraints
Viewing the Columns Associated with Constraints

Creating Views

Database Objects
What is a View?
Why use Views?
Simple Views and Complex Views
Creating a View
Retrieving Data from a View
Querying a View
Modifying a View
Creating a Complex View
Rules for Performing DML Operations on a View
Using the WITH CHECK OPTION Clause
Denying DML Operations
Removing a View
Inline Views
Top-N Analysis
Performing Top-N Analysis
Example of Top-N Analysis

Other Database Objects

What is a Sequence?
The CREATE SEQUENCE Statement Syntax
Creating a Sequence
Confirming Sequences
NEXTVAL and CURRVAL Pseudocolumns
Using a Sequence
Modifying a Sequence
Guidelines for Modifying a Sequence
Removing a Sequence
What is an Index?
How Are Indexes Created?
Creating an Index
When to Create an Index
When Not to Create an Index
Confirming Indexes
Function-Based Indexes
Removing an Index
Creating and Removing Synonyms

Controlling User Access

Controlling User Access
System Privileges
Creating Users
User System Privileges
Granting System Privileges
What is a Role?
Creating and Granting Privileges to a Role
Changing Your Password
Object Privileges
Granting Object Privileges
Using the WITH GRANT OPTION and PUBLIC Keywords
Confirming Privileges Granted
How to Revoke Object Privileges
Revoking Object Privileges
Database Links

Using SET Operators

The SET Operators
Tables Used in This Lesson
The UNION Operator
Using the UNION Operator
The UNION ALL Operator
Using the UNION ALL Operator
The INTERSECT Operator
Using the INTERSECT Operator
The MINUS Operator
SET Operator Guidelines
The Oracle Server and SET Operators
Matching the SELECT Statements
Controlling the Order of Rows

Oracle Datetime Functions

Oracle9i Datetime Support
TIMESTAMP Conversion Using FROM_TZ
Time Interval Conversion with TO_YMINTERVAL

Hierarchical Retrieval

Sample Data from the EMPLOYEES Table
Natural Tree Structure
Hierarchical Queries
Walking the Tree
Walking the Tree: From the Bottom Up
Walking the Tree: From the Top Down
Ranking Rows with the LEVEL Pseudocolumn
Formatting Hierarchical Reports Using LEVEL and LPAD
Pruning Branches